Hindustani, presently represented by the official languages of India Standard Hindi and Urdu, originated during the Mughal

Empire, when the Persian court language exerted a strong influence on the Indic dialects of central India, creating Rekhta

or “mixed” speech. It is this which came to be known as Hindustani, was elevated to a literary language, and is the basis for

modern standard Hindi and Urdu. Although these official languages are distinct registers  in their formal aspects, such as

modern technical vocabulary, they continue to be all but indistinguishable in their vernacular forms.

Most of the grammar and basic vocabulary of Hindustani descends directly from the medieval language of central India, known

as Sauraseni.

After the tenth century, several Sauraseni dialects were elevated to literary languages, or khari boli standing dialects,

including Braj Bhasha, Avadhi, and the Delhi dialect which currently goes by the name Khari Boli. During the reigns of the

Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire, which used Persian as their official language and had their capital in Delhi, the

Delhi dialect was used by the majority of the populace, including the army. It was thus infused with large numbers of

Persian, Arabic, and Turkic words from the court, primarily nouns, for cultural, legal, and political concepts.

The term Hindustani derives from Hindustan, the Persian name for India. It is thus the “Indian” language. The term Urdu, or

“camp language” cognate with the English word horde, was used to describe the common language of the Mughal army. The works

of the 13th century scholar Amir Khusro are typical of the Hindustani language of the time:

Sej vo sūnī dekh ke rovun main din rain,
Piyā piyā main karat hūn pahron, pal bhar sukh nā chain.

“Seeing the empty bed I cry night and day
“Calling for my beloved all day, not a moment’s happiness or rest.”

HINDI STAMP,INDIANBANKNOTES,statue of hindi diety,hindi language history,

HINDI STAMP,INDIANBANKNOTES,statue of hindi diety,hindi language history,


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