Irrigation during Vijayanagara Srikrishnadevaraya period

ROCK CANALS USED FOR IRRIGATION BY VIJAYANAGARA RULERS.

Water was used for irrigation from ancient times there were references about this all over the world. Even in USA during 300AD large scale irrigation was in use. In Indian subcontinent irrigation was well developed by Buddhist who built dams at many places and some are still intact unusable due to change of river path.

Amuktamalyada IV-V * give stress on tanks building for agriculture,King,Nobles,wealthy men, village assemblies should take interest in irrigation projects,under Dept of IRRIGATION , Sir Thomas Munro states that tanks,canals can be repaired at much less expense by individuals,local groups than by govt to keep them in better shape.

Now to

Irrigation during Vijayanagara Srikrishnadevaraya period

Irrigation during Vijayanagara Srikrishnadevaraya period

there was a post by name JALASUTRA PANDITA Hydraulic Engineer was appointed whose name was Singayya Bhatta .

Artificial supply of water was done by unique way to maintain regular supply for irrigation to compensate rain. Water is pumped from natural lakes and wells conveying the water over the land through gravity flow, was mastered by Vijayangara engineers, elaborate, expensive canals system was constructed with rocks which was only one of its kind in the world. You can see the photo of such unique rock pipeline which run for several kilometers at a stretch,[photo no 1 see DVD please]

Bukka II took a great task of building a dam and 15 mile long aqueduct from dam over Tungabadra river. Even now it supply water to Bellary fields. Special emphasis should be given to the aqueduct of several miles cut out of solid rock at the base of the hills was the most  remarkable irrigational work undertaken by Vijayanagara rulers.

Portuguese horse trader and historian Fernao Nunis 1535AD writes that a dam was built by Bukkaraya II across Tungabhadra in Bellary district due to which the revenue increased by 35000 pagodas here. Stone channel cut from Vagai to lands near Kuruvitturai, tax free land given for maintenance and doing repairs.

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Scented Aroma candle to Lift your mood


Every time that you enter a room that has a scented candle burning, you will be hit with a wonderful aroma that will bring memories flooding back or even change your mood.

You can add a great variety of fragrance oils to your candles to get the aroma that you require. You will need to use oil based fragrance oil and not the water based or alcohol based fragrances, as these will not combine properly with your wax. Most craft shops carry these fragrance oils for making scented candles.

Scented candles can freshen up a room even when not lit. They make great gifts and being handmade make them even more unique. There are a few things that you need to consider before making scented candles. You will need to choose what sort of wax you will be using,

Fragrance can be used with any of these different waxes. When using fragrance oil in gel wax candles you will also need to consider the density of your candle. The lower density gel wax will not be able to hold as much XXXXXXXXXX @ for information >>>>>>>>>.i will mail the secret, Apart from these considerations, the actual candle making process is the same as making regular candles.

To make scented candles you will simply follow the general candle making guide lines until you reach the point where you need to add the fragrance oil. So the first thing you need to do is prepare a mold of your choice with a wick in it. Next you will need to melt some wax and you do this by placing a small pot with your wax in it inside a larger pot to which you have added some water. This is called the double boiler method and it prevents the wax from burning. So heat the wax up to around 170-180 degrees by using a thermometer that can be found in your craft store. Once the wax is melted then you can add the fragrance oil of your choice but be careful not to add too much at once because you won’t be able to remove any excess oil but you can always add more if needed. As a general rule if you wish to make about a 6% fragrance concentration, then you will need to add an ounce of fragrance oil to 1 pound of wax. Too much oil and you will end up with soft spots through out the candle which will not allow it to burn properly. At this point you may also add some color by using some dye that can also be found at your craft store. Once you have completed these steps then you simply pour the wax into the mold and set it aside for up to 6 hours to cool. It’s a good idea to keep track of the different ingredients and amounts that you use when making scented candles, so that you can recreate the same candles over again. Just simply write it all down in a note pad.

Candles can make great gift ideas and having such a vast array of colors, decorations and scents you will be able to produce a unique gifts for family or friends that not only look good but also offer the soothing and calming effects of the scent chosen. So now it’s time to put your candle making knowledge to work and just do it!

3500years old Cover and letter made of CLAY from Sumeria


Cover and letter on clay tablet with crunieform inscription of Akkadians,found in Sumerian region is 3500years old.Even in this time court Judgments were given in sealed cover,the Difference is Clay cover and document are not of paper but of CLAY baked ofter writing and was signed by TWO JUDGES BENCH,the the petitioners are nine village heads,with seals of Judges,an Museum collection[OIM]
This is the First example of writing,postal system,Judiciary,etc

The cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. Created by the Sumerian’s from ca. 3000 BC, cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs. Over time, the pictorial representations became simplified and more abstract.
The cuneiform writing system originated perhaps around 2800 BC in Sumer; its latest surviving use is dated to 75 AD.
The cuneiform script underwent considerable changes over a period of more than two millennia.
Cuneiforms were written on clay tablets, on which symbols were drawn with a blunt reed called a stylus. The impressions left by the stylus were wedge shaped, thus giving rise to the name cuneiform .
The Sumerian script was adapted for the writing of the Akkadian, Elamite, Hittite languages, and it inspired the Old Persian and Ugaritic national alphabets.
The characters consist of arrangements of wedgelike strokes generally impressed with a stylus on wet clay tablets, which were then dried or baked. The history of the script is strikingly parallel to that of the Egyptian hieroglyphic The normal Babylonian and Assyrian writing used a large number (300–600) of arbitrary cuneiform symbols for words and syllables; some had been originally pictographic. There was an alphabetic system, too, making it possible to spell a word out, but because of the adaptation from Sumerian, a different language, there were many ambiguities. A single symbol could be used to represent a concept, an object, a simple sound or syllable, or to indicate the category of words requiring additional definition. Cuneiform writing was used outside Mesopotamia also, notably in Elam and by the Hittites. There are many undeciphered cuneiform inscriptions, apparently representing several different languages. Cuneiform writing declined in use after the Persian conquest of Babylonia (539 B.C.), and after a brief renaissance (3d–1st cent. B.C.) ceased to be used in Mesopotamia.