HINDI MERI PYARI HINDI AFTER TELUGU

Hindustani, presently represented by the official languages of India Standard Hindi and Urdu, originated during the Mughal

Empire, when the Persian court language exerted a strong influence on the Indic dialects of central India, creating Rekhta

or “mixed” speech. It is this which came to be known as Hindustani, was elevated to a literary language, and is the basis for

modern standard Hindi and Urdu. Although these official languages are distinct registers  in their formal aspects, such as

modern technical vocabulary, they continue to be all but indistinguishable in their vernacular forms.

Most of the grammar and basic vocabulary of Hindustani descends directly from the medieval language of central India, known

as Sauraseni.

After the tenth century, several Sauraseni dialects were elevated to literary languages, or khari boli standing dialects,

including Braj Bhasha, Avadhi, and the Delhi dialect which currently goes by the name Khari Boli. During the reigns of the

Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire, which used Persian as their official language and had their capital in Delhi, the

Delhi dialect was used by the majority of the populace, including the army. It was thus infused with large numbers of

Persian, Arabic, and Turkic words from the court, primarily nouns, for cultural, legal, and political concepts.

The term Hindustani derives from Hindustan, the Persian name for India. It is thus the “Indian” language. The term Urdu, or

“camp language” cognate with the English word horde, was used to describe the common language of the Mughal army. The works

of the 13th century scholar Amir Khusro are typical of the Hindustani language of the time:

Sej vo sūnī dekh ke rovun main din rain,
Piyā piyā main karat hūn pahron, pal bhar sukh nā chain.

“Seeing the empty bed I cry night and day
“Calling for my beloved all day, not a moment’s happiness or rest.”

HINDI STAMP,INDIANBANKNOTES,statue of hindi diety,hindi language history,

HINDI STAMP,INDIANBANKNOTES,statue of hindi diety,hindi language history,

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Irrigation during Vijayanagara Srikrishnadevaraya period

ROCK CANALS USED FOR IRRIGATION BY VIJAYANAGARA RULERS.

Water was used for irrigation from ancient times there were references about this all over the world. Even in USA during 300AD large scale irrigation was in use. In Indian subcontinent irrigation was well developed by Buddhist who built dams at many places and some are still intact unusable due to change of river path.

Amuktamalyada IV-V * give stress on tanks building for agriculture,King,Nobles,wealthy men, village assemblies should take interest in irrigation projects,under Dept of IRRIGATION , Sir Thomas Munro states that tanks,canals can be repaired at much less expense by individuals,local groups than by govt to keep them in better shape.

Now to

Irrigation during Vijayanagara Srikrishnadevaraya period

Irrigation during Vijayanagara Srikrishnadevaraya period

there was a post by name JALASUTRA PANDITA Hydraulic Engineer was appointed whose name was Singayya Bhatta .

Artificial supply of water was done by unique way to maintain regular supply for irrigation to compensate rain. Water is pumped from natural lakes and wells conveying the water over the land through gravity flow, was mastered by Vijayangara engineers, elaborate, expensive canals system was constructed with rocks which was only one of its kind in the world. You can see the photo of such unique rock pipeline which run for several kilometers at a stretch,[photo no 1 see DVD please]

Bukka II took a great task of building a dam and 15 mile long aqueduct from dam over Tungabadra river. Even now it supply water to Bellary fields. Special emphasis should be given to the aqueduct of several miles cut out of solid rock at the base of the hills was the most  remarkable irrigational work undertaken by Vijayanagara rulers.

Portuguese horse trader and historian Fernao Nunis 1535AD writes that a dam was built by Bukkaraya II across Tungabhadra in Bellary district due to which the revenue increased by 35000 pagodas here. Stone channel cut from Vagai to lands near Kuruvitturai, tax free land given for maintenance and doing repairs.

EGYPTIAN alphabet called hieroglyphics


The ancient Egyptians used their language and alphabet called hieroglyphics on temples and tombs especially to record the history of their Pharaohs and the adventures and conquers of them and to glorify all the Pharoah’s doings.

The ancient Egyptians called their script mdju netjer, or “words of the gods.” Hieroglyphs were the earliest form of Egyptian script, and also the longest-lived.