Hindustani, presently represented by the official languages of India Standard Hindi and Urdu, originated during the Mughal

Empire, when the Persian court language exerted a strong influence on the Indic dialects of central India, creating Rekhta

or “mixed” speech. It is this which came to be known as Hindustani, was elevated to a literary language, and is the basis for

modern standard Hindi and Urdu. Although these official languages are distinct registers  in their formal aspects, such as

modern technical vocabulary, they continue to be all but indistinguishable in their vernacular forms.

Most of the grammar and basic vocabulary of Hindustani descends directly from the medieval language of central India, known

as Sauraseni.

After the tenth century, several Sauraseni dialects were elevated to literary languages, or khari boli standing dialects,

including Braj Bhasha, Avadhi, and the Delhi dialect which currently goes by the name Khari Boli. During the reigns of the

Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire, which used Persian as their official language and had their capital in Delhi, the

Delhi dialect was used by the majority of the populace, including the army. It was thus infused with large numbers of

Persian, Arabic, and Turkic words from the court, primarily nouns, for cultural, legal, and political concepts.

The term Hindustani derives from Hindustan, the Persian name for India. It is thus the “Indian” language. The term Urdu, or

“camp language” cognate with the English word horde, was used to describe the common language of the Mughal army. The works

of the 13th century scholar Amir Khusro are typical of the Hindustani language of the time:

Sej vo sūnī dekh ke rovun main din rain,
Piyā piyā main karat hūn pahron, pal bhar sukh nā chain.

“Seeing the empty bed I cry night and day
“Calling for my beloved all day, not a moment’s happiness or rest.”

HINDI STAMP,INDIANBANKNOTES,statue of hindi diety,hindi language history,

HINDI STAMP,INDIANBANKNOTES,statue of hindi diety,hindi language history,


WHO IS ASAFJAHI First king Mir Kamaruddin

WHO IS ASAFJAHI First king Mir Kamaruddin

The founder of this dynasty was one Mir Kamaruddin, a noble and a courtier of the Mughal Muhammad Shah, who negotiated for a peace treaty with Nadirshah, the Iranian invader; got disgusted with the intrigues that prevailed in Delhi. He was on his way back to the Deccan, where, earlier he was a Subedar. But he had to confront Mubariz Khan, as a result of a plot by the Mughal emperor to kill the former. Mubariz Khan failed in his attempt and he was himself slain. This took place in A.D.1724, and henceforth Mir Kamaruddin, who assumed the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk, conducted himself as an independent prince. Earlier, while he was one of the Ministers of the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah, the latter conferred on him the title of Asaf Jah. Thus begins the Asaf Jahi rule over Golconda with the capital at Aurangabad. It was only during Nizam II rule that the capital of the Deccan Subha was shifted to Hyderabad reviving its importance.

The Asafjahi Nizams are generally counted as seven, though they were ten. Nasir Jung and Muzaffar Jung, son and grandson of the Nizam I who were killed by the Kurnool and Cuddapah Nawabs and Salabatjung who also ruled for a decade, were not counted by the historians though the Mughal emperors at Delhi recognised them as Subedars of the Deccan.

The Nizams of Asafjahi dynasty who ruled the Deccan are the following:

(1) Mir Kamaruddin (Nizam-ul-Mulk – Asaf Jah I) (A.D.1724–1748), (2) Nasir Jung (A.D. 1748–1751), (3) Muzaffar Jung (A.D.1750–1751), (4) Salabat Jung (AD.1751–1761), (5) Nizam Ali Khan – Asaf Jah II (A.D.1762–1803), (6) Nizam III Sikandar Jah (A.D.1803–1829), (7) Nizam IV — Nasir-ud-Daula (A.D.1829–1857), (8) Nizam V — Afzal-ud-Daula (A.D.1857–1869), (9) Nizam VI — Mir Mahaboob Ali Khan (A.D.1869–1911), and (10) Nizam VII — Mir Osman Ali Khan (AD.1911–1948 September).


Bhishma in rgveda news at ancient indian astronomy conference

Bhishma in rgveda news at ancient indian astronomy conference

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Hinduism is a combination of secular and sacred beliefs, rituals, daily practices and traditions that has evolved over the course of over two thousand years and embodies complex symbolism combining the natural world with philosophy. Hindu temples began as simple shrines housing a deity and by the time of the Hoysalas had evolved into well articulated edifices in which worshippers sought transcendence of the daily world. Hoysala temples were not limited to any specific organised tradition of Hinduism and encouraged pilgrims of different Hindu devotional movements. The Hoysalas usually dedicated their temples to Lord Shiva or to Lord Vishnu (two of the major Hindu gods), but they occasionally chose a different deity. Worshippers of Shiva are called Shaivas or Lingayats and worshippers of Vishnu are called Vaishnavas. While King Vishnuvardhana and his descendants were Vaishnava by faith, records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as many temples dedicated to Shiva as they did to Vishnu.[3] Most of these temples have secular features with broad themes depicted in their sculptures. This can be seen in the famous Chennakesava Temple at Belur dedicated to Vishnu and in the Hoysaleswara temple at Halebidu dedicated to Shiva. The Kesava temple at Somanathapura is different in that its ornamentation is strictly Vaishnavan. Generally Vaishnava temples are dedicated to Keshava (or to Chennakeshava, meaning “Beautiful Vishnu”) while a small number are dedicated to Lakshminarayana and Lakshminarasimha (Narayana and Narasimha both being avatars, or physical manifestations, of Vishnu) with Lakshmi, consort of Vishnu, seated at his feet. Temples dedicated to Vishnu are always named after the deity. The Shaiva temples have a Shiva linga, symbol of fertility and the universal symbol of Shiva, in the shrine. The names of Shiva temples can end with the suffix eshwara meaning “Lord of”. The name “Hoysaleswara”, for instance, means “Lord of Hoysala”. The temple can also be named after the devotee who commissioned the construction of the temple, an example being the Bucesvara temple at Koravangala, named after the devotee Buci.[5] The most striking sculptural decorations are the horizontal rows of exquisitely detailed, intricately carved images of gods, goddesses and their attendants on the outer temple wall panels. The Doddagaddavalli Lakshmi Devi (“Goddess of Wealth”) Temple is an exception as it is dedicated to neither Vishnu nor Shiva. The defeat of the Jain Western Ganga Dynasty (of present-day south Karnataka) by the Cholas in the early 11th century and the rising numbers of followers of Vaishnava Hinduism and Virashaivism in the 12th century was mirrored by a decreased interest in Jainism.However, two notable locations of Jain worship in the Hoysala territory were Shravanabelagola and Kambadahalli. The Hoysalas built Jain temples to satisfy the needs of its Jain population, a few of which have survived in Halebidu containing icons of Jain tirthankaras. They constructed stepped wells called Pushkarni or Kalyani, the ornate tank at Hulikere being an example. The tank has twelve minor shrines containing Hindu deities. contd part II for more info mail to musham3@gmail.com
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