Irrigation during Vijayanagara Srikrishnadevaraya period

ROCK CANALS USED FOR IRRIGATION BY VIJAYANAGARA RULERS.

Water was used for irrigation from ancient times there were references about this all over the world. Even in USA during 300AD large scale irrigation was in use. In Indian subcontinent irrigation was well developed by Buddhist who built dams at many places and some are still intact unusable due to change of river path.

Amuktamalyada IV-V * give stress on tanks building for agriculture,King,Nobles,wealthy men, village assemblies should take interest in irrigation projects,under Dept of IRRIGATION , Sir Thomas Munro states that tanks,canals can be repaired at much less expense by individuals,local groups than by govt to keep them in better shape.

Now to

Irrigation during Vijayanagara Srikrishnadevaraya period

Irrigation during Vijayanagara Srikrishnadevaraya period

there was a post by name JALASUTRA PANDITA Hydraulic Engineer was appointed whose name was Singayya Bhatta .

Artificial supply of water was done by unique way to maintain regular supply for irrigation to compensate rain. Water is pumped from natural lakes and wells conveying the water over the land through gravity flow, was mastered by Vijayangara engineers, elaborate, expensive canals system was constructed with rocks which was only one of its kind in the world. You can see the photo of such unique rock pipeline which run for several kilometers at a stretch,[photo no 1 see DVD please]

Bukka II took a great task of building a dam and 15 mile long aqueduct from dam over Tungabadra river. Even now it supply water to Bellary fields. Special emphasis should be given to the aqueduct of several miles cut out of solid rock at the base of the hills was the most  remarkable irrigational work undertaken by Vijayanagara rulers.

Portuguese horse trader and historian Fernao Nunis 1535AD writes that a dam was built by Bukkaraya II across Tungabhadra in Bellary district due to which the revenue increased by 35000 pagodas here. Stone channel cut from Vagai to lands near Kuruvitturai, tax free land given for maintenance and doing repairs.

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Scented Aroma candle to Lift your mood


Every time that you enter a room that has a scented candle burning, you will be hit with a wonderful aroma that will bring memories flooding back or even change your mood.

You can add a great variety of fragrance oils to your candles to get the aroma that you require. You will need to use oil based fragrance oil and not the water based or alcohol based fragrances, as these will not combine properly with your wax. Most craft shops carry these fragrance oils for making scented candles.

Scented candles can freshen up a room even when not lit. They make great gifts and being handmade make them even more unique. There are a few things that you need to consider before making scented candles. You will need to choose what sort of wax you will be using,

Fragrance can be used with any of these different waxes. When using fragrance oil in gel wax candles you will also need to consider the density of your candle. The lower density gel wax will not be able to hold as much XXXXXXXXXX @ for information >>>>>>>>>.i will mail the secret, Apart from these considerations, the actual candle making process is the same as making regular candles.

To make scented candles you will simply follow the general candle making guide lines until you reach the point where you need to add the fragrance oil. So the first thing you need to do is prepare a mold of your choice with a wick in it. Next you will need to melt some wax and you do this by placing a small pot with your wax in it inside a larger pot to which you have added some water. This is called the double boiler method and it prevents the wax from burning. So heat the wax up to around 170-180 degrees by using a thermometer that can be found in your craft store. Once the wax is melted then you can add the fragrance oil of your choice but be careful not to add too much at once because you won’t be able to remove any excess oil but you can always add more if needed. As a general rule if you wish to make about a 6% fragrance concentration, then you will need to add an ounce of fragrance oil to 1 pound of wax. Too much oil and you will end up with soft spots through out the candle which will not allow it to burn properly. At this point you may also add some color by using some dye that can also be found at your craft store. Once you have completed these steps then you simply pour the wax into the mold and set it aside for up to 6 hours to cool. It’s a good idea to keep track of the different ingredients and amounts that you use when making scented candles, so that you can recreate the same candles over again. Just simply write it all down in a note pad.

Candles can make great gift ideas and having such a vast array of colors, decorations and scents you will be able to produce a unique gifts for family or friends that not only look good but also offer the soothing and calming effects of the scent chosen. So now it’s time to put your candle making knowledge to work and just do it!

Women Army and officials

Angelina Jolie’s Rote "Salt"


Angelina Jolie’s Contradictions Buoy the Otherwise Rote “Salt”
Salt, a spy flick rewritten for Angelina Jolie after Tom Cruise dropped out, has been publicized as the cinematic equivalent of the 19th Amendment: finally, a level playing field for female action stars! This is mostly bullshit, of course — Jolie’s Evelyn Salt is not the first action hero to be given a gender reassignment between initial conception and opening weekend (cough, Alien), nor is this the first stunt-heavy film Jolie has carried on her back and sold on her name. What is startling about Salt is the extent to which, in insisting on the moral ambiguity of its protagonist for most of its running time, it gives us an action-hero prototype that Cruise couldn’t play and Jolie was born to.
That it flatters the audience by assuming a modicum of intelligence earns points if we’re grading on a curve, but this is still closer to product than art. Highly satisfying, often exhilarating, refreshingly unpretentious product.
@karina

RED light fine in USA


Red light cameras, when misused by idiotic and irresponsible public officials, can be one of the great scourges of America.
That much is fact. Even when they are used with some semblance of jurisprudence, they might be flat-out illegal. We’ll just have to see how the court challenges turn out.
But in the wrong hands they can be downright evil. Check out this Miami Herald story on the poor people of Aventura all others who drive in that city — who are getting shaken down by their own government for hundreds, sometimes thousands of dollars. Their crime Rolling a red light on a right turn. You do it all the time even if you don’t know it. You come up on an intersection, see there’s no cars coming, and never quite come to a complete stop.
In Aventura, this will get you a $125 fine for the first offense, $250 for the second, and a whopping $500 for each additional. It’s obscene and making it worse is that if one of the cameras got installed at a red light near you, you could wrack up multiple fines before you get the notice in the mail telling you did anything wrong in the first place.
Responsible towns don’t do this. Pembroke Pines, which was the first city in Broward to install the cameras (send your thanks to Angelo Castillo), doesn’t do it. West Palm Beach did it for a while, but then realizing how grotesque it was. In May WBP not only discontinued the practice, but decided to refund all the money it generated from such fines back to the citizens who paid them. But some towns just don’t
Courtesy http://blogs.browardpalmbeach.com/pulp/

National Nude Day July15


July 15 Surprising i never thought such day was there??? but is CELEBRATED.
I probably would never have cared that today is ‘National Nude Day’ except that we’re smack in the middle of bikini season. So, let’s lose the procrastination and all the other excuses while losing some weight as well. On any piece of paper use a black pen or marker to draw an outline of a human figure that corresponds to how you believe you look in your current reality. Now, draw a second figure inside that first one that demonstrates or symbolizes what your preferred and perfect shape would resemble. Put this image somewhere where you will see it as soon as you awake each morning and immediately before you go to bed each night. Leave it in this space for the next 49 consecutive days. Inside this same time frame and for a few seconds each day, light a black candle and concentrate on your weight just melting away all the while visualizing what you will look like with your new figure. Give great gratitude to your whole being and body for balancing and dropping the excess each time you light and then blow that candle out. As this candle diminishes day by day, the theory goes, so will you! Pretty weighty stuff, but I do have a couple of clients who have successfully lost the large this way, so it’s up to you to give it a go and give those last ten the heave ho!

MORE INFO ON ANY TOPIC @ ME

MORE INFO ON ANY TOPIC @ ME DISCUSSED IN THIS BLOG OR ANY NEW ONE TOO

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EGYPTIAN alphabet called hieroglyphics


The ancient Egyptians used their language and alphabet called hieroglyphics on temples and tombs especially to record the history of their Pharaohs and the adventures and conquers of them and to glorify all the Pharoah’s doings.

The ancient Egyptians called their script mdju netjer, or “words of the gods.” Hieroglyphs were the earliest form of Egyptian script, and also the longest-lived.

Egyptian Wedding Day


The Wedding Day

The day of the marriage was really quite simple. The bride merely moved her belongings into the home of her husband. He might be living alone or with his parents.

So what did the bride wear? She probably wore a long dress or tunic made of linen, which may have been covered from head to toe with bead-net. If she owned any gold, silver or lapis, she probably adorned herself with those, too.

Even though there was no official ceremony, knowing how much the ancient Egyptians loved music, dance and food, there were bound to be family celebrations in honor of the uniting couple.

Museums are filled with statues and paintings showing husbands and wives with their arms around each other’s waists, holding hands or offering each other flowers or food. Love and affection was indeed a part of the Egyptian marriage, and our Egyptian bride could expect to be loved and respected by her husband.

Entering into a marriage was described as ‘making a wife’ or ‘taking a wife’, but it seems that the girl’s father had the main say. If the girl had no father, an uncle would step in. In the absence of any preexisting agreement it seems that the girl’s consent to a marriage was unimportant until the 26th dynasty, when brides also began to have a say.

EGYPTIAN marriage

Little written evidence of either true marriage ceremonies or marriages as a concept has been found. Usually there was a grand party associated with the joining of two people, but we believe it was simply a social affair and had no real religious or legal bearing. Traditionally, the term hemet has been translated as “wife”, but is probably more accurately “female partner”. The legal and social implications of the word are not clear. Interestingly, the word hi is the male counterpart to hemet but seems to have been rarely used. However, this is probably due to funerary text most frequently being related to men, and so the female partner is referred to and defined by her husband. Hebswt is another word that seems to apply to a female partner, but traditionally it has been translated as “concubine”. However, this meaning is less clear because in some New Kingdom text both hemet and hebswt are used at the same time to apparently refer to the same female. It has been suggested that the term hebswt might more accurately describe a second or third wife after the first one died or was divorced. Of course, our modern, romantic concept of marriage is a relationship based on love between partners who consent to share their lives together. But up until the 26th dynasty, relatively late in Egyptian history, the bride herself seems to have little choice in the marriage. In fact, during this time frame most marriage contracts are actually between the girl’s father and future husband. The girl’s father and even her mother had much more say in the matter then the bride. After the 26th dynasty, the bride appears to have had more say in her future husband, and we find phrases in marriage contracts that indicate a more defined relationship. Among common people, polygamy may very well have existed as it obviously did in the royal class, but if so it was rare. We known from excavations such as Deir El Medina that the housing of common people conformed more to monogamy rather then polygamy. Yet from the 13th Dynasty (1795-1650 BC) on polygamy was common among kings and some of the ruling elite. While one principal wife (hemet nesw weret) was chosen, others were probably taken by the king in order to assure a royal heir, or cement relationships with foreign countries or even powerful regional leaders. Kings might have as many as several hundred wives, and in some periods other high officials took more then one wife. Also, the tradition of brother/sister or father/daughter marriages was mostly confined to the royalty of Egypt, at least until the Greek period.