Hindustani, presently represented by the official languages of India Standard Hindi and Urdu, originated during the Mughal

Empire, when the Persian court language exerted a strong influence on the Indic dialects of central India, creating Rekhta

or “mixed” speech. It is this which came to be known as Hindustani, was elevated to a literary language, and is the basis for

modern standard Hindi and Urdu. Although these official languages are distinct registers  in their formal aspects, such as

modern technical vocabulary, they continue to be all but indistinguishable in their vernacular forms.

Most of the grammar and basic vocabulary of Hindustani descends directly from the medieval language of central India, known

as Sauraseni.

After the tenth century, several Sauraseni dialects were elevated to literary languages, or khari boli standing dialects,

including Braj Bhasha, Avadhi, and the Delhi dialect which currently goes by the name Khari Boli. During the reigns of the

Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire, which used Persian as their official language and had their capital in Delhi, the

Delhi dialect was used by the majority of the populace, including the army. It was thus infused with large numbers of

Persian, Arabic, and Turkic words from the court, primarily nouns, for cultural, legal, and political concepts.

The term Hindustani derives from Hindustan, the Persian name for India. It is thus the “Indian” language. The term Urdu, or

“camp language” cognate with the English word horde, was used to describe the common language of the Mughal army. The works

of the 13th century scholar Amir Khusro are typical of the Hindustani language of the time:

Sej vo sūnī dekh ke rovun main din rain,
Piyā piyā main karat hūn pahron, pal bhar sukh nā chain.

“Seeing the empty bed I cry night and day
“Calling for my beloved all day, not a moment’s happiness or rest.”

HINDI STAMP,INDIANBANKNOTES,statue of hindi diety,hindi language history,

HINDI STAMP,INDIANBANKNOTES,statue of hindi diety,hindi language history,


Irrigation during Vijayanagara Srikrishnadevaraya period


Water was used for irrigation from ancient times there were references about this all over the world. Even in USA during 300AD large scale irrigation was in use. In Indian subcontinent irrigation was well developed by Buddhist who built dams at many places and some are still intact unusable due to change of river path.

Amuktamalyada IV-V * give stress on tanks building for agriculture,King,Nobles,wealthy men, village assemblies should take interest in irrigation projects,under Dept of IRRIGATION , Sir Thomas Munro states that tanks,canals can be repaired at much less expense by individuals,local groups than by govt to keep them in better shape.

Now to

Irrigation during Vijayanagara Srikrishnadevaraya period

Irrigation during Vijayanagara Srikrishnadevaraya period

there was a post by name JALASUTRA PANDITA Hydraulic Engineer was appointed whose name was Singayya Bhatta .

Artificial supply of water was done by unique way to maintain regular supply for irrigation to compensate rain. Water is pumped from natural lakes and wells conveying the water over the land through gravity flow, was mastered by Vijayangara engineers, elaborate, expensive canals system was constructed with rocks which was only one of its kind in the world. You can see the photo of such unique rock pipeline which run for several kilometers at a stretch,[photo no 1 see DVD please]

Bukka II took a great task of building a dam and 15 mile long aqueduct from dam over Tungabadra river. Even now it supply water to Bellary fields. Special emphasis should be given to the aqueduct of several miles cut out of solid rock at the base of the hills was the most  remarkable irrigational work undertaken by Vijayanagara rulers.

Portuguese horse trader and historian Fernao Nunis 1535AD writes that a dam was built by Bukkaraya II across Tungabhadra in Bellary district due to which the revenue increased by 35000 pagodas here. Stone channel cut from Vagai to lands near Kuruvitturai, tax free land given for maintenance and doing repairs.



¬Astrology seems to have made no progress since the
days of Claudius Ptolemaeus, who wrote nearly two
thousand years ago, and his “Tetrabiblos” is undoubt-
edly the best text-book on the subject existing today.
Modern astrologers, notably Kepler, have introduced
some changes, and made large claims, which Ptolemy
did not venture to do. He said specifically that the
science of astrology does not enable any man to predict
particular events, and there are certain things which no
rational man would think of foretelling. His method of
prediction was precisely that of the modern doctor, who
says that a disease will run a certain length of time, that
a certain constitution must have care or it will break
down, that from external appearances one man should
make a good blacksmith, another a good orator, and
so forth. The positions of the stars help us to analyze
more subtle physical conditions, not subject to external
observation. But the whole ground of prediction is
simply a knowledge of the physical, mental and moral
condition of a human being from birth. If we know
that the germs of hereditary consumption exist in a
child from birth, we can predict that he will die of the
disease, and may judge the time with tolerable accuracy.
And if we know the mode of crystallization, we have as
it were a chart of latent germs.

PTOLEMY as Cartographer

Ptolemy gave details on how to create maps both of the whole inhabited world (oikoumenè) and of the Roman provinces. In the second part of the Geographia he provided the necessary topographic lists, and captions for the maps. His oikoumenè spanned 180 degrees of longitude from the Blessed Islands in the Atlantic Ocean to the middle of China, and about 80 degrees of latitude from The Shetlands to anti-Meroe (east coast of Africa); Ptolemy was well aware that he knew about only a quarter of the globe, and an erroneous extension of China southward suggests his sources did not reach all the way to the Pacific Ocean.

The maps in surviving manuscripts of Ptolemy’s Geographia, however, date only from about 1300, after the text was rediscovered by Maximus Planudes. It seems likely that the topographical tables in books 2-7 are cumulative texts – texts which were altered and added to as new knowledge became available in the centuries after Ptolemy .This means that information contained in different parts of the Geography is likely to be of different date.


Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; c. AD 90 – c. 168), known in English as Ptolemy was a Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote in Greek.He was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer and a poet of a single epigram in the Greek AnthologyHe lived in Egypt under Roman rule, and is believed to have been born in the town of Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid. He died in Alexandria around AD 168.

Ptolemy was the author of several scientific treatises, at least three of which were of continuing importance to later Islamic and European science. The first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest (in Greek, Ἡ Μεγάλη Σύνταξις, “The Great Treatise”, originally Μαθηματικὴ Σύνταξις, “Mathematical Treatise”). The second is the Geography, which is a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world. The third is the astrological treatise known sometimes in Greek as the Apotelesmatika (Ἀποτελεσματικά), more commonly in Greek as the Tetrabiblos (Τετράβιβλος “Four books”), and in Latin as the Quadripartitum (or four books) in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day