ATRONOMICAL conference NEWS

Bhishma in rgveda news at ancient indian astronomy conference

Bhishma in rgveda news at ancient indian astronomy conference

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RAHUL GANDHI WHO BEARS THE BURDEN OF NEEDY

Published in: on June 29, 2010 at 9:37 am  Leave a Comment  
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RAJGHAT FDC,places of Delhi 15 FDC for SALE

Rajghat,is the place where Mahatma Gandhi was cremated. A memorial to the father of the nation,
Set in the midst of deep green lawns, Rajghat is the place where Mahatma Gandhi was cremated. A memorial to the

father of the nation, Rajghat is a simple square platform with a black memorial stone with “Hey Ram” inscribed on it.
“Hey Ram” were the last words uttered by the Mahatma before collapsing after being shot at.
Located on the west bank of the River Yamuna, Rajghat is surrounded by a wooded area and several exotic shrubs that

give the area a serene ambience. Walk along the ornate stone pathways as you relax on your tours to the samadhi of

one of the greatest leaders, statesman and humanist ever born.

India Travel Portal arranges for you to pay your respects at Rajghat and feel an indescribable peace as you approach

the resting place of one of the greatest proponents of non-violence.
Also tour the Gandhi Memorial Museum and the Gandhi Balidan Sthal as a part of your Rajghat tours with India Travel

Portal.

Delhi Forts are the sheer reminders of the glorious era of city’s successive dynasties. Visit the colossal Red Fort

and Old Fort two major attractions of the city capital.

Monumental heritage of Delhi is well preserved in its forts, palaces, temples and mosques. Visit the magnificent

Qutub Minar that holds lot of surprises in its colossal minaret.
India Gate is constructed as a memorial and was built in the memory of 90,00 soldiers who laid down their lives

during world war I. Located at Rajpath, India Gate is 42 m high and is popular relaxation area during the summer

evenings. India Gate also act as popular pinic spot during winter. Also known as the All India War Memorial, India

Gate was designed and constructed by Lutyens. He was the who is considered the chief proclaimer in designing the New

Delhi plans.

If it were not for the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of 1919, the Parliament House may not have been built. It’s corny

how the building most indispensable to modern Indian democracy came up as an afterthought. Earlier called the

Circular House, it was added to the layout at a later stage following the reforms which created a large Legislative

Assembly.
This edifice is the brainchild of Herbert Baker and was much criticized in comparison with Lutyens creations. An

article by Robert Byron in Architectural Review, January 1931describes it thus: “The Council Chamber has been Sir

Herbert’s unhappiest venture. Its effect from a distance has been described. It resembles a Spanish bull-ring, lying

like a mill-wheel dropped accidentally on its side.”

The Viceroy Palace remains Lutyens most significant achievement. It is befittingly the crowning glory of the British

Empire and architecture in India. Today, it is perhaps India’s best known monument after the Taj Mahal and the Qutub

Minar. Bigger than the Palace of Versailles, it cost a whopping £12,53,000 and now houses the President of India. It

is unquestionably a masterpiece of symmetry, discipline, silhouette, colour and harmony. of course, it has come in

for much criticism too but that has mostly been limited to the imperial intent behind it rather than its

architecture.
The construction of Humayun’s tomb was taken up by the grief-stricken wife of Humayun, Hamida Banu, also known as

Bega Begam in 1565. Legend has it that the design of the Taj was inspired from this tomb’s. In pure architectural

sense, this building is probably superior and much more beautiful that the stunning Taj. Sacrilege? But really, the

only thing this building lacks is the showy marble.

Humayun- The Mughal Emperor Costructed The Fort
When the second Mughal emperor Humayun decided to make a city of his own he decided on the site of the ancient city

of Indraprastha. Humayun was quite a scholar with a fine grasp on such matters and so it is certain that the site was

chosen deliberately. When his Sher Shah Suri overthrew him, he destroyed most of Dinpanah (refuge of the faithful) as

the city of Humayun was called to make way for his own Dilli Sher Shahi or Shergarh. Incidentally, Humayun was

probably the only emperor in history who built a city in Delhi and did not give it his own name – this was typical of

Humayun’s rather sophisticated and dreamy character. The Layout of The Massive Colossal

Jantar Mantar
¤ An Observatory
The Jantar Mantar was built in 1710 by Raja Jai Singh II of Jaipur (1699-1743) in Delhi. This is an observatory

consisting of mason-built astronomical instruments to chart the course of the heavens. Jai Singh, who was a very

scholarly king with a very keen interest in astronomy and astrology, had other observatories built too – in Ujjain,

Jaipur, Mathura (which no longer survives) and Varanasi.
The first among these was this one in Delhi. The yantras (instruments, which has been distorted to Jantar) are built

of brick rubble and plastered with lime. The yantras have evocative names like, samrat yantra, jai prakash, ram

yantra and niyati chakra; each of which are used to for various astronomical calculations.

Qutub Minar in Delhi
¤ Constructed As A Holy Minar
Qutub MinarThe world famous towering Qutub Minar, started in 1192 by Qutub-ud-din Aibak (1192-98), breathes down the

neck of the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque. There is a slight difference of opinion as to its purpose: it probably was a

tower of victory, but then again it could have been built to be a minar (tower), attached to the Quwwat-ul-Islam

mosque, for the muezzin (priest) to climb up top for a prayer.

¤ Other Belief of Its Construction

Among Delhites there are lots of other theories about the origin of the tower. Some say it was the observatory of the

great scientist Aryabhatta of ancient India, other claim that it was built by Prithvi Chauhan for his daughter to see

the Yamuna. In fact everything short of an extraterrestrial origin has been attributed to it. The presence of the

ancient non-rusting Iron Pillar within the complex further appears to add credence to the first theory. However the

tower, its entire design and architecture are undisputedly Islamic and all the other theories are just matters of

wild surmise.
Considering how shortchanged he was for time, it is doubtful that Qutub-ud-din got much further than a couple of

levels of the minar, in fact many suggest that lived to see only the first storey complete. Altamash, his successor,

completed the remaining tower.

¤ Measures Taken To Keep The Minar In Perfect Shape

It is clear that the tower was very close to the sultanate’s heart, since repeated efforts were made to keep it in

perfect shape. In its long career, the tower got hit by lightening twice – something that, of course, with its height

it was literally asking for. Once during the reign of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq, who very decently repaired the ensuing

damage. The next time was in the indefatigable builder Feroze Shah Tughlaq’s time, when the topmost storey got

damaged. Feroze Shah, who of course couldn’t well leave things alone, not only repaired the floor, but also sneaked

in another level.

The Mecca of all the lovers, without places to go and extra money to spend in Delhi, is the beautiful and serene Lodi

Garden. Its original purpose was hardly that however. It was designed over two dynasties – the Sayyids and Lodis (15

-16 th century) – to be a sort of everyone-take-one graveyard for their families.

During the British times the garden went under the moniker of Lady Willingdon Park, all that stopped with the

Independence when they reverted back to being good old Lodi garden. In 1968, the gardens were spruced and

relandscaped by JA Stein and Garrett Eckbo. There are several tombs in this area. You can climb to the top of some of

them. However the steps are very steep and dark so it’s strictly not recommended. Apart from breaking your neck, you

might end up being bitten by a snake or something
The result of this combined effort is an interesting mix in styles that is clearly discernable all over the tower.

Each of the original three storeys has different designs. The base storey has alternate angular and circular flutings

while those of the second one are round and the third one has only angular flutings. Their alignment is mercifully

similar, so giving the tower a rhythmic harmony. The pretty projecting balconies have a very interesting pattern,

with icicle-shaped pendentive (an intricate design in which triangular pieces of vaulting spring from the corners of

a rectangular area and support a rounded or polygonal dome) type of brackets. The attractiveness of the balconies is

heightened by the bands of sonorous inscriptions. The diameter (at base) of the Qutub Minar is 14.32m and about 2.75m

at the top.

¤ The Attraction of Crownig Cupola

The tower had a crowning cupola on the top at one time, however this was struck down sometime in the early 19th

century, an earthquake felled it. This was replced by a well meaning English engineer Major Smith. However it must

have looked quite an eyesore for when Lord Hardinge was Governor-general of British India, he had it removed. You can

see it now on the spruce lawns of the Qutub complex. Come to think of it, it must have been eyesore – it’s called

Smith’s folly.

RAJGHAT places of Delhi FDC sale

RAJGHAT places of Delhi FDC sale

Ancient SIND letter,

ANCIENT MEDIEVAL POSTAL HISTORY consisting mostly of government dispatches,AND SPYING ON THE PEOPLE and anti government workers and that report was carried from place to place by horse born men and on foot walkers during chandragupta period as written CHANAKYA BOOK OF ARTHASHASTA FIRST INDIAN CONTITUTION AND TAX MANUAL ,horse or horse-drawn wagon in ancient Egypt and Persia. Most mail was still being transported the same way in the middle of the 19th century, when stagecoaches carried letters and packages to the West coast.

Historical references to postal systems in Egypt date from about 2000 BC. The Persian Empire under Cyrus the Great (6th century BC) used a system of mounted relay messengers. The riders would stop at regularly placed posthouses to get a fresh horse or to pass on their packets of dispatches to another messenger for the remainder of the distance.

On the other side of the world, in China, a posthouse service had been started early in the Chou Dynasty (ruled 1122-221 BC). It was used mostly to convey official documents. The far-reaching system consisted of relays of couriers who changed horses at relay posts 9 miles yojana apart. The system was enlarged under the Han Empire (202 BC-AD 220), when the Chinese came in contact with the Romans and their postal system.

Ancient sind letter from mountains

Ancient sind letter from mountains

Varahamihira praised,ISLAMIC SCIENCE

Varahamihira’s main work is the book Pañcasiddhāntikā (or Pancha-Siddhantika, “[Treatise] on the Five [Astronomical] Canons) dated ca. 575 CE gives us information about older Indian texts which are now lost. The work is a treatise on mathematical astronomy and it summarises five earlier astronomical treatises, namely the Surya Siddhanta, Romaka Siddhanta, Paulisa Siddhanta, Vasishtha Siddhanta and Paitamaha Siddhantas. It is a compendium of native Indian as well as Hellenistic astronomy (including Greek, Egyptian and Roman elements).

The 11th century Arabian scholar Alberuni also described the details of “The Five Astronomical Canons”:
the Indianshave 5 Siddhāntas:

Sūrya-Siddhānta, ie. the Siddhānta of the Sun, composed by Lāṭa,
Vasishtha-siddhānta, so called from one of the stars of the Great Bear, composed by Vishnucandra,
Pulisa-siddhānta, so called from Paulisa, the Greek, from the city of Saintra, which is supposed to be Alexandria, composed by Pulisa.
Romaka-siddhānta, so called from the Rūm, ie. the subjects of the Roman Empire, composed by Śrīsheṇa.
Brahma-siddhānta, so called from Brahman, composed by Brahmagupta, the son of Jishṇu, from the town of Bhillamāla between Multān and Anhilwāra, 16 yojanas from the latter place.”

ANCIENT INDIAN OBSERVATORY JANTAR MANTAR DELHI,

ANCIENT INDIAN OBSERVATORY JANTAR MANTAR DELHI,

FOR more information on above subject contact  musham3@gmail.com

NEHRU GANDHI at congress session

Gandhi first employed non-violent civil disobedience while an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, during the resident Indian community’s struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he organized protests by peasants, farmers, and urban labourers concerning excessive land-tax and discrimination. After assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns to ease poverty, expand women’s rights, build religious and ethnic amity, end untouchability, and increase economic self-reliance. Above all, he aimed to achieve Swaraj or the independence of India from foreign domination. Gandhi famously led his followers in the Non-cooperation movement that protested the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km (249 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930. Later he campaigned for the British to Quit India. Gandhi spent a number of years in jail in both South Africa and India.

As a practitioner of ahimsa, he swore to speak the truth and advocated that others do the same. Gandhi lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn he had hand spun on a charkha. He ate simple vegetarian food, and also undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and social protest.

Nehru gandhi

Nehru gandhi

Gandhi related stamps

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and spiritual leader of India during the Indian independence movement. He was the pioneer of satyagraha—resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, firmly founded upon ahimsa or total non-violence—which led India to independence and has inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. Gandhi is commonly known around the world as Mahatma Gandhi (Sanskrit:mahātmā or ‘Great Soul’, an honorific first applied to him by Rabindranath Tagore), and in India also as Bapu (Gujarati: bāpu or “Father”). He is officially honoured in India as the Father of the Nation; his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence.

gandhi FDC rare definative stamp

gandhi FDC rare definative stamp