Irrigation during Vijayanagara Srikrishnadevaraya period

ROCK CANALS USED FOR IRRIGATION BY VIJAYANAGARA RULERS.

Water was used for irrigation from ancient times there were references about this all over the world. Even in USA during 300AD large scale irrigation was in use. In Indian subcontinent irrigation was well developed by Buddhist who built dams at many places and some are still intact unusable due to change of river path.

Amuktamalyada IV-V * give stress on tanks building for agriculture,King,Nobles,wealthy men, village assemblies should take interest in irrigation projects,under Dept of IRRIGATION , Sir Thomas Munro states that tanks,canals can be repaired at much less expense by individuals,local groups than by govt to keep them in better shape.

Now to

Irrigation during Vijayanagara Srikrishnadevaraya period

Irrigation during Vijayanagara Srikrishnadevaraya period

there was a post by name JALASUTRA PANDITA Hydraulic Engineer was appointed whose name was Singayya Bhatta .

Artificial supply of water was done by unique way to maintain regular supply for irrigation to compensate rain. Water is pumped from natural lakes and wells conveying the water over the land through gravity flow, was mastered by Vijayangara engineers, elaborate, expensive canals system was constructed with rocks which was only one of its kind in the world. You can see the photo of such unique rock pipeline which run for several kilometers at a stretch,[photo no 1 see DVD please]

Bukka II took a great task of building a dam and 15 mile long aqueduct from dam over Tungabadra river. Even now it supply water to Bellary fields. Special emphasis should be given to the aqueduct of several miles cut out of solid rock at the base of the hills was the most  remarkable irrigational work undertaken by Vijayanagara rulers.

Portuguese horse trader and historian Fernao Nunis 1535AD writes that a dam was built by Bukkaraya II across Tungabhadra in Bellary district due to which the revenue increased by 35000 pagodas here. Stone channel cut from Vagai to lands near Kuruvitturai, tax free land given for maintenance and doing repairs.

Some details about Damodar rao,musham

MUSHAM DAMODHAR RAO  musham@gmail.com 91+09441816605

https://musham.wordpress.com

Speciality :- Calculated velocity of light from Nannaya Maha Bharata,

Father of the Youngest Stamp collector in the World

Prime minister Shri.Rajiv Gandhi released book on Astronomical Bhisma from Rgveda,

Banking History of India,China,Japan and Orient,

Islamic,Hindu,Jain,Buddhist,Vedic Ancient technical sciences,Geography,Numismatics,Epigraphy,Pyretics,Metallurgy,

Astronomy,Vaastu,Mathematics.History of Playing Cards from 300BC,

History of Congress,Ancient Women Army in South India,Ancient Maritime Trade,

Satavahanas,Kakatiyas,Iksvaku,Nagarjuna colonies in Orient,SETI usa project.

[See my biodata for more details]

I can read :- Brahmi,Grandhi style of Telugu,Kharosti,Classical Devanagari.
Kannada,Telugu,Hindi,English,Sanskrit,Russian,Japanese,Chinese,Korean,Spanish,

German,French etc…

ROMANI trace their origins to medieval India.

ROMANI trace their origins to medieval India.

Romani people, an ethnic group with origins in South Asia who are widely dispersed with their largest concentrated populations in Europe, especially Central and Eastern Europe, with more recent diaspora populations in the Americas and, to a lesser extent, in North Africa and the Middle East.

The Romani also Romany, Romanies, Romanis, Roma or Roms; exonym: Gypsies; Romani: Romane or Rromane,are an ethnic group living mostly in Europe, who trace their origins to medieval India.

The English term Gypsy originates from the Greek word Αιγύπτιοι Aigyptioi, whence modern Greek γύφτοι gifti in the belief that the Romanies, or some other Gypsy groups such as the Balkan Egyptians, originated in Egypt, and in one narrative were exiled as punishment for allegedly harboring the infant Jesus.This exonym is sometimes written with capital letter, to show that it designates an ethnic group.

As described in Victor Hugo's novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame, the medieval French referred to the Romanies as egyptiens. The term has come to bear pejorative connotations. The word "Gypsy" in English has become so pervasive that many Romani organizations use it in their own organizational names.

In North America, the word "Gypsy" is commonly used as a reference to lifestyle or fashion, and not to the Romani ethnicity. The Spanish term gitano and the French term gitan may have the same origin

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Electricity from Rice Husk

Villages in Bihar have been lifted out of darkness with an uninterrupted, self sufficient power supply and the credit for this initiative goes to Gyanesh Pandey, the promoter of Husk Power Systems (HPS) that transforms piles of discarded rice husk to light up the villages. Partnering with his friends Ratnesh Yadav, Manoj Sinha, and Charles W Ransler, Pandey has established ‘green’ power plants in 120 villages across Bihar and 3 villages in Uttar Pradesh.

After research and experiments, the team decided that the most feasible way to provide power to the villagers who depended on agriculture would be to generate electricity from rice husk. Through this unique green technology, villages get uninterrupted power for up to 6-12 hours by setting up a plant, which burns rice husk to generate gas to run generators.

“Becoming an entrepreneur was an evolutionary process. I had a good life in America. I did not face any problems there, but I always had the feeling that I must do something for our villages. I do not feel as though I have made any sacrifice. Today, there is hardly anything I do other than work. It gives me the satisfaction no other job can ever give,” says Pandey who feels that India’s acute power crisis must be solved efficiently with renewable resources.

After resigning his job in the U.S., Pandey returned to his home state in 2007, as his idea was to provide power to villagers who depended on agriculture as their main occupation in a cost-effective and environmentally-friendly manner.

The company is set to make profits by the end of this year and plans to light up villages in other states like Maharastra, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. Providing electricity to villages across India is just the beginning of Pandey’s ambitious plan to transform rural India. The company has already taken up the initiative to educate 200 children from Tumkuha. @s1c

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Princely states coins of India

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Scented candles lift your moods

Every time that you enter a room that has a scented candle burning, you will be hit with a wonderful aroma that will bring memories flooding back or even change your mood.

You can add a great variety of fragrance oils to your candles to get the aroma that you require. You will need to use oil based fragrance oil and not the water based or alcohol based fragrances, as these will not combine properly with your wax. Most craft shops carry these fragrance oils for making scented candles.

Scented candles can freshen up a room even when not lit. They make great gifts and being handmade make them even more unique. There are a few things that you need to consider before making scented candles. You will need to choose what sort of wax you will be using,

Birch-candles cpChristmas-candles cp

Fragrance can be used with any of these different waxes. When using fragrance oil in gel wax candles you will also need to consider the density of your candle. The lower density gel wax will not be able to hold as much XXXXXXXXXX @ for information >>>>>>>>>.i will mail the secret, Apart from these considerations, the actual candle making process is the same as making regular candles.

To make scented candles you will simply follow the general candle making guide lines until you reach the point where you need to add the fragrance oil. So the first thing you need to do is prepare a mold of your choice with a wick in it. Next you will need to melt some wax and you do this by placing a small pot with your wax in it inside a larger pot to which you have added some water. This is called the double boiler method and it prevents the wax from burning. So heat the wax up to around 170-180 degrees by using a thermometer that can be found in your craft store. Once the wax is melted then you can add the fragrance oil of your choice but be careful not to add too much at once because you won't be able to remove any excess oil but you can always add more if needed. As a general rule if you wish to make about a 6% fragrance concentration, then you will need to add an ounce of fragrance oil to 1 pound of wax. Too much oil and you will end up with soft spots through out the candle which will not allow it to burn properly. At this point you may also add some color by using some dye that can also be found at your craft store. Once you have completed these steps then you simply pour the wax into the mold and set it aside for up to 6 hours to cool. It's a good idea to keep track of the different ingredients and amounts that you use when making scented candles, so that you can recreate the same candles over again. Just simply write it all down in a note pad.

Candles can make great gift ideas and having such a vast array of colors, decorations and scents you will be able to produce a unique gifts for family or friends that not only look good but also offer the soothing and calming effects of the scent chosen. So now it's time to put your candle making knowledge to work and just do it!

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World First Democracy YODHEYA GANAM

Early democratic institutions in India comes from the independent "republics"

, sanghas  and ganas, which existed as early as the sixth century BCE and persisted in some areas until the fourth century CE. The evidence is scattered and no pure historical source exists for that period. In addition, Diodorus a Greek historian writing two centuries after the time of Alexander the Great's invasion of India, without offering any detail, mentions that independent and democratic states existed in India.However, modern scholars note that the word democracy at the third century BC and later had been degraded and could mean any autonomous state no matter how oligarchic it was.

The main characteristics of the gana seem to be a monarch, usually called raja and a deliberative assembly. The assembly met regularly in which at least in some states attendance was open to all free men, and discussed all major state decisions. It had also full financial, administrative, and judicial authority. Other officers, who are rarely mentioned, obeyed the decisions of the assembly. The monarch was elected by the gana and apparently he always belonged to a family of the noble K'satriya Varna. The monarch coordinated his activities with the assembly and in some states along with a council of other nobles.The Licchavis had a primary governing body of 7,077 rajas, the heads of the most important familes. On the other hand, the Shakyas, the Gautama Buddha's people, had the assembly open to all men, rich and poor.

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BORN IN POST ALL of Postal India

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ADARSH,youngest stamp collector in the world

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ROCK CAMPUS DINING HALL WITH PLATES,CUPS,

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