BORN IN POST ALL of Postal India

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ADARSH,youngest stamp collector in the world

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How technology changed us

How technology changed us. ALWAYS ONE IN FAT ONE IS SLIM
How technology changed us……..

How technology changed  us........

Process of weaving now

WEAVING. The process of weaving consists in interlacing, at right angles, two or more series of flexible materials, of which the longitudinal are called warp and the transverse weft. Weaving, therefore, only embraces one section of the textile industry, for felted, plaited, netted, hosiery and lace fabrics lie outside this definition. Felting consists in bringing masses of loose fibres, such as wool and hair, under the combined influences of heat, moisture and friction, when they become firmly inter – locked in every direction. Plaited fabrics have only one series of threads interlaced, and those at other than right angles. In nets all threads are held in their appointed places by knots, which are tied wherever one thread intersects another. Hosiery fabrics, whether made from one or many threads, are held together by intersecting a series of loops; while lace fabrics are formed by passing one set of threads between and round small groups of a second set of threads, instead of moving them from side to side. Notwithstanding the foregoing limitations, woven fabrics are varied in texture and have an enormous range of application. The demands made by prehistoric man for fabrics designed for clothing and shelter were few and simple, and these were fashioned by interlacing strips of fibrous material and grasses, which in their natural condition were long enough for the purpose in hand. But, as he passed from a state of savagery into a civilized being, his needs developed with his culture, and those needs are still extending. It no longer suffices to minister to individual necessities; luxury, commerce and numerous industries must also be considered.

The invention of spinning gave a great impetus to the introduction of varied effects previously; the use of multicoloured threads provided ornament for simple structures, but the demand for variety extended far beyond the limits of colour, and different materials were employed either separately or conjointly, together with different schemes of interlacing. Eventually the weaver was called upon to furnish articles possessing lustre, softness and delicacy; or those that combine strength and durability with diverse colourings, with a snowy whiteness, or with elaborate ornamentation. In cold countries a demand arose for warm clothing, and in hot ones for cooler materials; while commerce and industry have requisitioned fabrics that vary from normal characteristics to those that exceed an inch in thickness. In order to meet these and other requirements the world has been searched for suitable raw materials. From the animal kingdom, wool, hair, fur, feathers, silk and the pinna fibre have long been procured. From the vegetable kingdom, cotton, flax, hemp, jute, ramie and a host of other less known but almost equally valuable materials are derived. Amongst minerals there are gold, silver, copper, brass, iron, glass and asbestos. In addition, strips of paper, or skin, in the plain, gilt, silvered and painted con – ditions are available as well as artificial fibres. All of the fore – going may be used alone or in combination.

The process of weaving

The process of weaving

Gandhi related stamps

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and spiritual leader of India during the Indian independence movement. He was the pioneer of satyagraha—resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, firmly founded upon ahimsa or total non-violence—which led India to independence and has inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. Gandhi is commonly known around the world as Mahatma Gandhi (Sanskrit:mahātmā or ‘Great Soul’, an honorific first applied to him by Rabindranath Tagore), and in India also as Bapu (Gujarati: bāpu or “Father”). He is officially honoured in India as the Father of the Nation; his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence.

gandhi FDC rare definative stamp

gandhi FDC rare definative stamp

Vedas and Saraswati culture

The Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts in the

world dating from c. 1500-500BCE. Most Indologists

agree that an oral tradition existed long before a

literary tradition tentatively may have been set in

(in one shakha, Kanva) from about the 1st century BCE;

however it was again superseded by oral tradition

until c. 1000 CE.[14] Due to the ephemeral nature of

the manuscript material (birch bark or palm leaves),

surviving manuscripts rarely surpass an age of a few

hundred years.[15] The Benares Sanskrit University

has a Rigveda manuscript of the mid-14th century,

however, there are a number of older Veda manuscripts

in Nepal belonging to the Vajasaneyi tradition that

are dated from the 11th century onwards.

The Vedic period lasts for about a millennium,

spanning the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age.

Gavin Flood[16] sums up mainstream estimates,

according to which the Rigveda was compiled from

as early as 1500 BCE over a period of several centuries.

The Vedic period reaches its peak only after the

composition of the mantra texts, with the

establishment of the various shakhas all over

Northern India which annotated the mantra s

amhitas with Brahmana discussions of their

meaning, and reaches its end in the age of Buddha

and Panini and the rise of the Mahajanapadas

(archaeologically, Northern Black Polished Ware).

Michael Witzel gives a time span of c. 1500 BCE to

c. 500-400 BCE. Witzel makes special reference to

the Mitanni material of ca. 1400 BCE as the only

epigraphic record of Indo-Aryan that may date to

the Rigvedic period. However Mitanni Indo-Aryan

is linguistically slightly older than the language of

the Rigveda, and the comparison thus still does not

allow for an absolute dating of any Vedic text.

He gives 150 BCE (Patanjali) as a terminus ante

quem for all Vedic Sanskrit literature, and 1200

BCE (the early Iron Age) as terminus post quem

for the Atharvaveda

Rgveda,vedas,saraswati cuture

Rgveda,vedas,saraswati cuture

Published in: on September 21, 2008 at 6:46 am  Leave a Comment  
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PiriReis map of USA,southamerica,Antarctica before Columbus,

Ancient map with antarctica,americas,without ice cap.

Ancient map with antarctica,americas,without ice cap.

The map is a famous pre-modern world map created by 16th century Ottoman-Turkish admiral and cartographer Reis. The map shows part of the western coasts of Europe and North Africa with reasonable accuracy, and the coast of Brazil is also easily recognizable. Various Atlantic islands including the Azores and Canary Islands are depicted, as is the mythical island of Antillia. The map is noteworthy for its depiction of a southern landmass that some controversially claim is evidence for early awareness of the existence of Antarctica

What fascinate me most are the marginal notes on the accounts of the pioneer seamen who have taken part in the discovery of the places shown on the map.

These coasts are named the shores of Antilia. They were discovered in the year 896 of the Arab calendar.

There are many difficulties in the map of South America, including duplication of rivers, and the continent’s southern end allegedly merging with an ice-free Antarctica. Close examination of the coastline supports the alternative theory that the “extra” landmass is simply the South American coast, probably explored in secret by Portuguese navigators, and bent round to fit the parchment. There are features resembling the basins at the mouth of the Strait of Magellan, and the Falkland Islands;also the annotations on the map itself, stating that this region is hot and inhabited by large snakes do not fit with the likely climate and fauna in Antarctica in the 1500s. Similarly the map states that “spring comes early” to the islands off the coast, which is true of the Falkland Islands but not of any islands close to the Antarctic mainland.

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PiriReis map of USA,southamerica,Antarctica before Columbus,
Published in: on September 20, 2008 at 4:52 am  Comments (1)  
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