HINDI STAMP OF MUSHAM DAMODAR RAO

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HINDI NATIONAL LANGUAGE

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JANMADINA SHUBHAKANSKALU

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JANMADIN MUBARAK

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HAPPY BIRTHDAY HINDI

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DECCANI HINDI GAVE BIRTH TO URDU

The poet Wali Deccani (1667–1707) visited Delhi in 1700. He is termed “Bava Adam” founding father of Urdu poetry by Maulana

Muhammad Husain Azad wrote in the monumental Aab-e-Hayat (Water of Life). His visit is considered to be of great significance

for Urdu Gazals. His simple and melodious poems in Hindustani, stunned the Persian loving nobles of Delhi and made them aware

of the beauty and capability of “Rekhta” or “Hindawi” an old name for Hindustani as a medium of poetic expression. His visit

thus stimulated the development of Urdu Gazal in the imperial city of Old Delhi.

Hindustani soon gained distinction as the preferred language in courts of South Asia and eventually replaced Persian among

the nobles. To this day retains an important place in literary and cultural spheres. Many distinctly Persian forms of

literature, such as ghazals and nazms, came to both influence and be affected by South Asian culture, producing a distinct

melding of Middle Eastern and South Asian heritages. A famous cross-over writer was Amir Khusro, whose Persian and Urdu

couplets are to this day read in the subcontinent. Persian has sometimes been termed an adopted classical language of the

South Asia alongside Sanskrit due to its role in South Asian tradition.

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HINDI PERSIAN FLAIR

Persian was crucial in the formation of a common language of the Central, North and Northwest regions of the South Asia.

Following the Mughal conquest of South Asia and the resulting vast Islamic empire, especially in the northern and central

regions of the South Asia, a hybrid language of Arabic, Pashto, Turkish, Persian, and local dialects began to form around the

16th and 17th centuries CE, one that would eventually be known as Urdu from a Turkish word meaning “army”, in allusion to the

army barracks of visiting troops.

Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan built a new walled city of Shahjahanabad in Delhi in 1639. The market close to the royal fort Red

Fort came to be called Urdu Bazar and the language was eventually termed “Urdu”. It grew from the interaction often Persian-

speaking Muslim soldiers and native peoples. Soon, the Persian script and Nasta’liq form of cursive was adopted, with

additional figures added to accommodate the South Asian phonetic system, and a new language based on the South Asian grammar

with a vocabulary largely divided between Persian and indirectly some Arabic and local Prakrit dialects. Elements peculiar to

Persian, such as the enclitic ezāfe, and the use of the takhallus, were readily absorbed into Hindustani literature both

religious and secular. This language was developed by Kashmiri Pandits and now a days widely spoken in South Asia.

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HINDI MERI PYARI HINDI AFTER TELUGU

Hindustani, presently represented by the official languages of India Standard Hindi and Urdu, originated during the Mughal

Empire, when the Persian court language exerted a strong influence on the Indic dialects of central India, creating Rekhta

or “mixed” speech. It is this which came to be known as Hindustani, was elevated to a literary language, and is the basis for

modern standard Hindi and Urdu. Although these official languages are distinct registers  in their formal aspects, such as

modern technical vocabulary, they continue to be all but indistinguishable in their vernacular forms.

Most of the grammar and basic vocabulary of Hindustani descends directly from the medieval language of central India, known

as Sauraseni.

After the tenth century, several Sauraseni dialects were elevated to literary languages, or khari boli standing dialects,

including Braj Bhasha, Avadhi, and the Delhi dialect which currently goes by the name Khari Boli. During the reigns of the

Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire, which used Persian as their official language and had their capital in Delhi, the

Delhi dialect was used by the majority of the populace, including the army. It was thus infused with large numbers of

Persian, Arabic, and Turkic words from the court, primarily nouns, for cultural, legal, and political concepts.

The term Hindustani derives from Hindustan, the Persian name for India. It is thus the “Indian” language. The term Urdu, or

“camp language” cognate with the English word horde, was used to describe the common language of the Mughal army. The works

of the 13th century scholar Amir Khusro are typical of the Hindustani language of the time:

Sej vo sūnī dekh ke rovun main din rain,
Piyā piyā main karat hūn pahron, pal bhar sukh nā chain.

“Seeing the empty bed I cry night and day
“Calling for my beloved all day, not a moment’s happiness or rest.”

HINDI STAMP,INDIANBANKNOTES,statue of hindi diety,hindi language history,

HINDI STAMP,INDIANBANKNOTES,statue of hindi diety,hindi language history,

Legislative Council Chairman A. Chakrapani with damodhar rao

Legislative Council Chairman A. Chakrapani with damodar rao,musham

Legislative Council Chairman A. Chakrapani with damodar rao,musham

Legislative Council Chairman A. Chakrapani with damodar rao,musham at Telugu University discussing about SriKrishnadevaraya Irrigation paper in

500 years Souvenir during that occassion

Roma Victims

Most estimates for numbers of Roma victims of the Holocaust fall between 200,000 and 500,000, although figures ranging between 90,000 and 4 million have been proposed. Lower estimates do not include those killed in all Axis-controlled countries. A detailed study by the late Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum gave a figure of at least a minimum of 220,000, probably higher, possibly closer to 500,000 (cited in Re. Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation (Swiss Banks) Special Master's Proposals, September 11, 2000). Ian Hancock, Director of the Program of Romani Studies and the Romani Archives and Documentation Center at the University of Texas at Austin, argues in favour of a higher figure of between 500,000 and 1,500,000 in his 2004 article, Romanies and the Holocaust: A Reevaluation and an Overview as published in Stone, D. (ed.) (2004) The Historiography of the Holocaust. Palgrave, Basingstoke and New York.

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